At present, corn gluten meal is mainly used in the feed industry in China. However, the use of corn protein powder can extract natural food coloring, zein, and glutamic acid, and can also prepare corn active peptides with a variety of physiological functions, such as glutamine peptides, high F-number oligopeptides, Blood pressure peptides and zein peptides greatly increase their economic value.
1 corn gluten meal as feed protein source
Corn gluten meal has high protein content and rich amino acids, but the amino acid composition is unbalanced. It is rich in branched chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, valine), sulfur-containing amino acids, proline and phenylalanine Etc., especially rich in glutamic acid, but lacking lack of basic and acidic amino acids, such as tryptophan and lysine are very low in content.
It is mainly composed of prolamin. Due to its special structure and strong hydrophobicity, it limits the digestion and utilization of animals. Although the microorganisms in the animal's digestive tract and digestive enzymes in the intestine can digest and degrade partly Corn gluten meal, but digestion is very limited. It has been reported in the literature that the addition of exogenous proteases can promote the digestion and absorption of corn protein powder by animal bodies. The zein meal is produced by digestive enzymes or biodegradation and has a significant biologically active peptide with high F-number oligopeptide molecules. In addition to being easily digested and absorbed by the animal body, corn active peptides also have physiological activities such as anti-oxidation, elimination of fatigue, and lowering of blood pressure; high-F value oligopeptide molecules have functions of improving the liver, kidney, intestine, and stomach of the animal body.
It can be used to replace some protein meals such as bean meal and fish meal in the feed market where soybean meal and fish meal are in short supply. In addition, soy protein is rich in lysine and tryptophan, and lacks sulfur-containing amino acids. Therefore, mixing soybean protein and corn protein powder in a certain ratio and then performing enzymolysis can play a complementary role to further improve the grain protein powder. Its nutritional value and quality are conducive to improving the digestion and absorption of livestock and poultry and meeting the nutritional needs of livestock and poultry. The compound feed of laying hens based on corn gluten meal can increase egg production rate, prevent and control chicken's osteomalacia and other diseases, and promote growth, and also help improve egg protein quality. In the cattle industry, the use of corn protein powder as a concentrated feed can make some of the protein that cannot be digested by the rumen digested and absorbed better in the small intestine. Corn gluten contains linoleic acid, which can promote fat metabolism in chickens and promote the polymerization of essential amino acids.
2 Corn gluten meal improves broiler coloration
Although the coloration of the skin of the broiler has nothing to do with its nutritional value, due to the influence of traditional culture, consumers and breeders still use the coloration of the broiler as one of the indicators to measure the quality of broiler, which directly affects the price and demand of the broiler market. Broiler chickens cannot synthesize lutein by themselves, and can only be obtained from feed. The coloration of the epidermis depends on the effective supply of lutein in the feed and the total deposition of lutein in the chicken. Broilers fed diets such as corn and beancake can only obtain normal skin color. In order to obtain the ideal skin color, it is common to add chemical synthetic colorants such as galaxin red and galizin yellow to the broiler feed. Such coloring agents are sold at a higher price, which will increase the cost of the feed and remain in the poultry. It is harmful to consumers' health.
Corn gluten powder has a high content of lutein and can be effectively absorbed, which can make the eggs appear golden yellow, make chicken skin yellow, and increase nutritional value and price. The content of lutein in corn gluten meal is 90 ~ 180 mg · kg-1, which is more than 5 times that of yellow corn, but the price is close to the price of soybean cake. In view of this, corn protein powder can be used in place of chemical synthetic colorants to improve the coloration of egg yolk and chicken.
3 Corn gluten meal can replace part of the role of antibiotics
Corn gluten feed made from corn starch as a by-product of corn syrup contains 13% to 16% protein and 7% to 8% citric acid. It has the characteristics of acidity, aroma, sweetness, good palatability and high digestibility. The citric acid contained in corn protein feed is of special significance. Using acidifying agents such as citric acid instead of pharmaceutical-type growth promoters, no harmful substances will remain in livestock and poultry products, and there will be no withdrawal period like many antibiotics. The requirements of the WHO can also increase feed intake and digestibility of livestock and poultry.
4 Reduce nitrogen emission rate and reduce environmental pollution from livestock and poultry excreta
Through experiments on the effects of different types of corn protein meal dietary fiber and energy on nitrogen metabolism in growing pigs, the digestion, absorption, utilization, and excretion of nitrogen by growing pigs were further explored, so as to more effectively study low-polluted diet technology. The results showed that the nitrogen deposition, nitrogen digestibility, and total nitrogen utilization rate of corn gluten meal diets were positively related to the digestibility of the neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and crude fiber; the fecal nitrogen of the diet and the nitrogen of the diet The ratio is linearly negatively correlated with the digestibility of the dietary neutral detergent fiber, acidic detergent fiber, and crude fiber, and linearly positively correlated with the content of neutral detergent fiber or crude fiber. The dietary neutral washing fiber or crude fiber content is increased, the ratio of fecal nitrogen to dietary nitrogen is increased, the nitrogen discharge is increased, the total nitrogen utilization efficiency is reduced, and it is beneficial to environmental protection.
In short, zein meal has a high protein content, and its degradation product, bioactive peptides, besides being easy for the animal body to digest and absorb, has antioxidant and physiological functions such as improving immunity. In addition, zein meal is rich in lutein and has high Feed value. However, the content of gliadin in corn gluten meal is relatively high, and digestive enzymes and microorganisms in the animal body have very limited digestion and utilization, which cannot achieve the desired ideal effect. The addition of exogenous protease preparation can improve the digestibility and utilization of corn protein powder by animals. Corn gluten meal has a wide source and will be widely used in the feed industry, especially its coloring effect. The application prospect of poultry feed will be very broad.