Organic farming is a form of agriculture that relies on crop rotation, green manure, compost, biological pest control, and mechanical cultivation to maintain soil productivity and control pests, excluding or strictly limiting the use of synthetic fertilizers and synthetic pesticides, plant growth regulators, livestock feed additives, and genetically modified organisms. Since 1990s the market for organic products has been growing at a rapid pace. This demand has driven a similar increase in organically managed farmland.
Pest control targets animal pests (including insects), fungi, weeds and disease. Organic pest control involves the cumulative effect of many techniques, including, allowing for an acceptable level of pest damage, encouraging or even introducing beneficial organisms, careful crop selection and crop rotation, and mechanical controls such as row covers and traps. These techniques generally provide benefits in addition to pest control-soil protection and improvement, fertilisation, pollination, water conservation, season extension, etc.,-and these benefits are both complementary and cumulative in overall effect on farm health. Effective organic pest control requires a thorough understanding of pest life cycles and interactions. Weeds are controlled mechanically, thermically and through the use of covercrops and mulches.
So，Organic farming can uses natural or naturally available means for farming.
The farm is tilled by oxen, legumes are grown for nitrogenfixing, and inter-cropping, crop rotation, composting, vermiculture, and so on, are practised to help retain moisture, fertilise the soil and protect the crop against pests. Energy use is minimal with organic farming.
Effective watershed management techniques practised on organic farms have been shown to reduce water use and raise the water table, all without poisoning the soil with chemical residues.
If organic farming were to be practised exclusively, some of the land being used for agriculture can actually be set aside for other uses, without any material impact on food supply.
Organic methods often require more labour, providing rural jobs but increasing costs to urban consumers. Most organic farm products use reduced pesticide claim but very few manage to eliminate the use of pesticide entirely.
While organic farming can, with extra cost, easily substitute chemical fertiliser with organic one, finding an alternative method for eliminating weeds as well as insects which feast on crops is difficult. Pest resistant GM crops are an alternative to pesticide use, but one which is unacceptable to many in the organic farming movement.
For weed elimination, the traditional method is to remove weeds by hand, which is still practiced in developing countries by small scale farmers. However, this has proven too costly in developed countries where labour is more expensive. One recent innovation in rice farming is to introduce ducks and fish to wet paddy fields, which eat both weeds and insects.
The main limiting macronutrient for agricultural production is biologically available nitrogen (N) in most areas.
Food production and distribution today are heavily subsidised, as is well known. Organic food, since it does not receive any of these subsidies, in comparison, comes across as being expensive. Such produce can be cost-competitive if it receives the same subsidies given to non-organically grown foods, and is perhaps likely to be cheaper in view of its inherently superior yield.
Thus, organic agriculture is a holistic production management system that promotes the health of the agro-ecosystem related to biodiversity, nutrient biological cycles, soil microbial and biochemical activity.