The measures proposed in research and practice that are more productive, more profitable, more environmentally friendly, and more socially accepted are collectively referred to as fertilizer (or nutrient) best management measures (BMPs). The goal of optimal fertilizer management measures is to match the supply of nutrients with the needs of crops to achieve optimal yield while minimizing the loss of nutrients to the environment. The application of the best fertilizer management measures in the four aspects of nutrient management (fertilizer variety, amount of fertilizer, time of fertilization, and method of fertilization) provides the corresponding basic principles of nutrient management, that is, the efficient use of plant nutrients to obtain the maximum economic, social and environmental benefits. system.
A single best management measure can only improve one or two aspects of performance. Since the four management aspects are worthy of attention, nutrient management needs to adopt a series of best management measures that complement each other. If any of these aspects are ignored, it is impossible to achieve efficient farm nutrient management. The weakest aspect of management will have the greatest impact.
The following five universal scientific principles apply to fertilizer best management practices:
1)Follow known principles of agronomy.
Comprehensive consideration of relevant scientific knowledge, including soil fertility, plant nutrition, soil physical chemistry, hydrology, and agrometeorology. For example, wilting of crops due to water stress may be exacerbated under drought conditions, because high nutrient concentrations in the roots can absorb water from the crop body through osmotic pressure. In this case, fertilization should be consistent with soil moisture availability in time.
2)Pay attention to the interaction between fertilization and other management measures.
Such as cultivars, sowing time, sowing density, crop rotation, etc.
3)Pay attention to the mutual influence of fertilizer variety, fertilizer application amount, application time and application method.
For example, the application periods of controlled-release fertilizers and water-soluble fertilizers may be inconsistent.
4)Avoid the adverse effects of fertilization on plant roots, leaves and seedlings
For example, strip fertilization needs to maintain a safe distance from the seeds to avoid damage to the seedlings.
5)Pay attention to the effect of fertilization on crop quality and yield.
For example, nitrogen affects both yield and grain protein content. Protein is an important nutrient for animals and humans, and it also affects the quality of bread made with wheat. Although the amount of nitrogen applied above the optimal yield will increase a certain grain protein content, excessive nitrogen application has an adverse effect on plant health, crop yield and quality, and environmental sustainability. The use of nitrogen-efficient crop varieties is worth noting. Appropriate selection of crop varieties and rational adjustment of fertilization strategies are crucial. Many varieties grow too fast in a high-nitrogen environment, which will cause the crop vegetative organs to grow too vigorously and reduce the harvestable part.